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Mass of a huge supermassive black hole calculated with precision by astronomers

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What happens in a black hole? It is not yet known whether the theories are different. For the moment we have to settle for studying what happens in the “sphere of influence” of a black hole, ie the inner region closest to the “edge” of the black hole itself which is not part of the event horizon, that area beyond the which also the light can no longer leave.

A group of scholars is going to use this with the Aracama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array (ALMA) to study this specific region of influence of the supermassive black hole located in the center of the galaxy NGC 3258. The latter is an elliptical galaxy that is located at a distance of about 100 million light-years from us.

The researchers determined the “weight” of the supermassive black hole: 2.25 billion solar masses. This is the most massive black hole measured with ALMA and one of the most massive but identified.

Researchers have shown that with this telescope it is possible to “map the rotation of gaseous discs around supermassive black holes with extraordinary details,” as reported by Benjamin Boizelle, a researcher at Texas A&M University as well as the principal author of the study published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Thanks to these “extraordinary details,” they calculated the weight of the black hole with a precision of better than 1%, a measurement that is considered as one of the most precise black hole mass measurements ever made for a black hole beyond outside the Milky Way.

The same data also shows that the speed of rotation of the disk around the black hole ranges from one million miles per hour in the outer edge, located at a distance of about 500 light-years from the black hole, up to three million miles per hour in the most central regions, at a distance of just 65 light-years from the black hole.

Julie Smith

I am a journalist with extensive experience working with different organizations in Kentucky, starting out as an editor with The Paducah Sun and later joining The Louisville Times. I am very happy to have joined The Chunk as a volunteer contributor, and submit research and content during my spare time. I am a long term subscriber to Nature and Scientific American, and frequently read up on new scientific research.

1263 Cerullo Road, Louisville Kentucky, 40244
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Fish oil supplements associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease

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Regular intake of fish oil-based supplements may be linked to a lower risk of death from all causes and cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke, according to a press release accompanying a new study published in The BMJ.
Fish oil has become a popular dietary supplement in many countries due to the presence of omega-3 fatty acids, substances that can help prevent cardiovascular disease.

To confirm this association, a team of researchers from China and the United States used a database of subjects from the United Kingdom, one of the countries where fish oil supplements are quite widespread.
The database counted more than half a million people, men and women aged 40 to 69 years, without cardiovascular disease or cancer. The follow-up lasted from 2006 to 2010. The researchers also used hospital records to consider possible hospitalizations or deaths.

Almost a third of the subjects then reported taking fish oil supplements regularly, at least at the beginning of the follow-up.
The researchers found that a regular intake of fish oil supplements could be associated with a 13% lower risk of all-cause mortality, a 16% lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality, and a 7% lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

The association between the use of fish oil and cardiovascular disease was higher in people with hypertension. The results remained unchanged even after analyzing various risk factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, age, any medications used and use of other supplements.
The results can be explained, according to the researchers, in the fact that omega-3 fatty acid supplements show beneficial effects on blood pressure, cholesterol level and heart rate, things that naturally have a protective effect against the onset of cardiovascular disease.

As with any observational study, it is not possible to establish a direct cause, but the researchers themselves believe that a habitual use of fish oil may be associated with a lower risk of mortality for all causes and a lower risk of contracting cardiovascular disease.

Julie Smith

I am a journalist with extensive experience working with different organizations in Kentucky, starting out as an editor with The Paducah Sun and later joining The Louisville Times. I am very happy to have joined The Chunk as a volunteer contributor, and submit research and content during my spare time. I am a long term subscriber to Nature and Scientific American, and frequently read up on new scientific research.

1263 Cerullo Road, Louisville Kentucky, 40244
502-375-7899
[email protected]
Julie Smith
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3D printing of capillaries and vascular system very faithful thanks to new material

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A new material could allow the realization, through 3D printing, of artificial tissues more similar to human vascular structures, according to a statement referring to a new study published in Nature Communications.
Researchers at the University of Nottingham and Queen Mary University in London have in fact discovered a method to print graphene oxide in 3D using a protein which can organize itself into tubular structures that seem to replicate, more or less faithfully, several important properties of the same vascular tissue.

Professor Alvaro Mata explains the results of the study: “This work offers opportunities for biofabrication by allowing the simulated top-down 3D bioprinting and self-assembly of synthetic and biological components from the bottom upwards in an orderly manner at the nanoscale. We are biofabricating micro-scale capillaries that, like fluid structures compatible with cells, have physiologically relevant properties and the ability to resist flow. This could enable the recreation of vascularization in the laboratory and could have implications in the development of safer and more efficient drugs, which means that treatments could potentially reach patients much more quickly.

By controlling how graphene oxide binds to the protein, this assembly can be guided on very small scales to print frameworks with very complex geometries and up to 10 um resolution.
A good step towards laboratory replication of very important areas of human tissue and organs in general, as Yuanhao Wu, the study’s principal researcher, suggests.

Julie Smith

I am a journalist with extensive experience working with different organizations in Kentucky, starting out as an editor with The Paducah Sun and later joining The Louisville Times. I am very happy to have joined The Chunk as a volunteer contributor, and submit research and content during my spare time. I am a long term subscriber to Nature and Scientific American, and frequently read up on new scientific research.

1263 Cerullo Road, Louisville Kentucky, 40244
502-375-7899
[email protected]
Julie Smith
Continue Reading

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New robotic prosthesis allows hand and finger movements with thought

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One of the main problems with robotic hand implants is sending the command from the patient’s brain to the hand and fingers, through the muscles or nerves, to make the necessary movements.
It is an obstacle that seems to be solved by a new project carried out by researchers at the University of Michigan who have developed a system to control with extreme precision a robotic hand that responds to the patient’s thoughts.

The interface is based on a series of small muscle grafts that amplify the nerve signals that leave the brain. The interface has already been tested on robotic prostheses and seems to have been successful after translating the signals from the brain into real movements with a stable level of precision over time.
Current robotic prostheses work mostly by recording electrical signals from the muscles. This means that the patient has to contract the muscles in the forearm to control the fingers. This is not possible for all patients: in some of them, the muscles may be damaged or completely missing and patients cannot do the necessary push-ups to start the input.

In addition, if the person’s arm sweats, swells or the prosthesis moves, the signal is no longer accurate and the device needs to be recalibrated so much so that in the end many amputees decide that it is not worth it.
The new devices are based on nerves. They also transmit the commands of the brain along the arm. However, implanting wires into the nerves to capture their electrical signals is not efficient because the nerve signals are weak.

It has therefore been thought in the past to increase these signals from the nerves by connecting them to the muscles. In practice, the weak nerve signals have been redirected to another muscle in the body. But even this approach has in many ways proved to be unsuccessful.
Researchers at the University of Michigan, led by Paul Cederna, have therefore thought of an alternative approach, namely to equip the nerves with their own small muscles.

They connected the nerves of the arm to pieces of muscle tissue collected from the thigh, creating a new set of finger muscles inside the forearm. In the study, published in Science Translational Medicine, researchers describe the first tests with this new robotic prosthesis in which wires are inserted through the skin into alternative muscle grafts.

During testing, the device seemed to be able to easily pick up electrical signals. Using computer algorithms, the researchers were able to translate electrical signals into expected movements during tests in which patients moved a virtual hand on the screen or through a commercially available prosthesis called LUKE.
Now researchers are trying to compact this interface by remodeling it so that no wires protrude through the skin and optimizing its functions.

Julie Smith

I am a journalist with extensive experience working with different organizations in Kentucky, starting out as an editor with The Paducah Sun and later joining The Louisville Times. I am very happy to have joined The Chunk as a volunteer contributor, and submit research and content during my spare time. I am a long term subscriber to Nature and Scientific American, and frequently read up on new scientific research.

1263 Cerullo Road, Louisville Kentucky, 40244
502-375-7899
[email protected]
Julie Smith
Continue Reading

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