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Mass of a huge supermassive black hole calculated with precision by astronomers

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What happens in a black hole? It is not yet known whether the theories are different. For the moment we have to settle for studying what happens in the “sphere of influence” of a black hole, ie the inner region closest to the “edge” of the black hole itself which is not part of the event horizon, that area beyond the which also the light can no longer leave.

A group of scholars is going to use this with the Aracama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array (ALMA) to study this specific region of influence of the supermassive black hole located in the center of the galaxy NGC 3258. The latter is an elliptical galaxy that is located at a distance of about 100 million light-years from us.

The researchers determined the “weight” of the supermassive black hole: 2.25 billion solar masses. This is the most massive black hole measured with ALMA and one of the most massive but identified.

Researchers have shown that with this telescope it is possible to “map the rotation of gaseous discs around supermassive black holes with extraordinary details,” as reported by Benjamin Boizelle, a researcher at Texas A&M University as well as the principal author of the study published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Thanks to these “extraordinary details,” they calculated the weight of the black hole with a precision of better than 1%, a measurement that is considered as one of the most precise black hole mass measurements ever made for a black hole beyond outside the Milky Way.

The same data also shows that the speed of rotation of the disk around the black hole ranges from one million miles per hour in the outer edge, located at a distance of about 500 light-years from the black hole, up to three million miles per hour in the most central regions, at a distance of just 65 light-years from the black hole.

Julie Smith

I am a journalist with extensive experience working with different organizations in Kentucky, starting out as an editor with The Paducah Sun and later joining The Louisville Times. I am very happy to have joined The Chunk as a volunteer contributor, and submit research and content during my spare time. I am a long term subscriber to Nature and Scientific American, and frequently read up on new scientific research.

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Rising sea levels started in the 60s

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According to a study conducted by researchers from the University of Siegen, Germany, sea level rise would have started as early as the 60s of the last century. The study, published in Nature Climate Change, made use of various data relating to phenomena such as coastal tides and data from satellites.

In particular since the early 90s of the last century, satellites around the Earth have begun to measure the sea level with extreme precision, as reported by Sönke Dangendorf, researcher at the German University and principal author of the study, who adds: “So far it has not been clear when this acceleration began, in which region it was started and which processes contributed most to it. The answer to these questions was hampered by the fact that before the advent of satellite altimetry in 1992, our knowledge was based mainly on a few hundred tide gauges that record sea level along the coasts of the world and that our available approaches to reconstructing sea levels globally from these measurements were too inaccurate.”

The new approach, based on data relating to tidal registers and those provided by satellites, shows that the acceleration of sea-level rise began already in the 60s when the level itself began to increase by just under a millimeter per year (60 years), an acceleration that then reached more than 3 mm per year today, as reported by Carling Hay, geophysicist at Boston College and another author of the study.

The researchers also found that most of this level rise comes from the southern hemisphere, particularly from the subtropical southeastern marine areas of Australia and New Zealand. In these regions, this acceleration is even five times greater than the global average.

This differentiation, according to the same researchers, is due to the changing winds strongly influencing sea levels. They move northward from the warm masses of the ocean waters and control the absorption of heat by the underlying ocean, as Dangendorf explains: “When the westerly winds of the southern hemisphere intensify, more heat is pumped from the atmosphere into the ocean, leading to an expansion of the water column and therefore to an increase in the global sea level.”

Julie Smith

I am a journalist with extensive experience working with different organizations in Kentucky, starting out as an editor with The Paducah Sun and later joining The Louisville Times. I am very happy to have joined The Chunk as a volunteer contributor, and submit research and content during my spare time. I am a long term subscriber to Nature and Scientific American, and frequently read up on new scientific research.

1263 Cerullo Road, Louisville Kentucky, 40244
502-375-7899
[email protected]
Julie Smith
Continue Reading

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Mega tsunami caused on Mars by asteroid impact billions of years ago

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An international group of researchers has come to the conclusion that the crater of Lomonosov, an impact crater in the northern part of Mars with a diameter of about 80 miles, can be connected to an impact that would have caused a mega-tsunami over 3 billion years ago on the red planet.

According to the most reliable theories, on Mars, in fact, billions of years ago there existed an enormous ocean that covered a good part of the northern surface of the planet. The asteroid could be impacted right in this body of water.

Precisely the large size of the crater, first of all, suggests that the impact body itself was large. Scientists believe the asteroid was similar in size to the one that struck the Yucatan peninsula 66 million years ago on Earth, an asteroid about 6 miles in diameter.

In the study, published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, the researchers then describe the evidence they believe would witness the formation of a huge tsunami due to the impact that occurred not long after the planet was formed. According to the researchers, by carefully observing the crater, it can be seen that part of the edge is missing and this can be considered a proof of the movement of a huge mass of water that has helped to wear down the edge itself.

Furthermore, the crater seems to have more or less the same depth as the ancient ocean once present on Mars. At the moment these are theoretical assumptions: there is no agreement even with regard to the presence of the enormous northern Martian ocean.

This ocean would have formed on Mars about 3.4 billion years ago and according to some theories it may have been quite long-lived while according to others the water would have remained liquid only for a few thousand years and then finally frozen and then, during hundreds of millions of years, largely dissolved in space.

Julie Smith

I am a journalist with extensive experience working with different organizations in Kentucky, starting out as an editor with The Paducah Sun and later joining The Louisville Times. I am very happy to have joined The Chunk as a volunteer contributor, and submit research and content during my spare time. I am a long term subscriber to Nature and Scientific American, and frequently read up on new scientific research.

1263 Cerullo Road, Louisville Kentucky, 40244
502-375-7899
[email protected]
Julie Smith
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Injecting three hormones under the skin causes weight loss in the obese

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During some experiments, researchers at Imperial College London noticed a reduction in body weight and glucose levels in obese patients with diabetes in about four weeks. The reduction took place thanks to the injection of a particular mix of hormones.

According to researchers at Imperial College, the procedure known as “gastric bypass,” sometimes very effective for reducing excess weight, is efficient because it causes a greater production of three specific hormones by the cells of the small intestine and colon.

It is a combination of hormones called “GOP” which reduces appetite and causes a loss of weight, also improving the body’s ability to use absorbed sugar in foods, which is very important for diabetics.

Based on this notion, the researchers injected a mix of three hormones into patients: peptide 1 similar to glucagon (GLP-1), oxintomodulin (OXM) and peptide YY (PYY). This combination mimicked the combination of hormones whose increased production occurs after the aforementioned surgery.

Patients received this treatment for four weeks. The injection took place through a special pump that slowly introduced the mix into the body, under the skin, for 12 hours a day. At the same time, patients followed a diet prescribed by a dietitian.

According to Tricia Tan, a professor at Imperial College and the lead author of the study, the results have shown promise and show significant improvements in patient health in just four weeks. The same researcher in the press release adds: “Compared to other methods the treatment is non-invasive and has reduced glucose levels to almost normal levels in our patients.”

The results of the study were published in Diabetes Care.

Julie Smith

I am a journalist with extensive experience working with different organizations in Kentucky, starting out as an editor with The Paducah Sun and later joining The Louisville Times. I am very happy to have joined The Chunk as a volunteer contributor, and submit research and content during my spare time. I am a long term subscriber to Nature and Scientific American, and frequently read up on new scientific research.

1263 Cerullo Road, Louisville Kentucky, 40244
502-375-7899
[email protected]
Julie Smith
Continue Reading

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